Theory of Automata – Computer Science – mbzintech


The theoretical field of computer science is known as the Theory of Automata. Its foundations date back to the 20th century when mathematicians theorized and built computers that emulated human intelligence in order to solve problems more efficiently and accurately. It will work automatically after setting the instructions in it.


“The term “Automata” is derived from the Greek word “αὐτόματα” which means “self-acting“. An automaton (or automata) is a kind of abstract self-propelled computer system that operates in accordance with a programmed set of instructions.”

Automata are abstract representations of computational machinery that respond to input by transitioning between states. At each step of the computation, a transition function takes into account just a subset of the current state to decide which state to transition to next. When the calculation achieves a configuration that can process the input, it will do so. The broadest and most powerful automaton is the Turing Machine.

There are major four parts of automata:

  1. A machine with a finite number of states
  2. Automata that operate by pushing a button
  3. Automata with a linear boundary
  4. Machine learning

These states and transitions make up this automaton. There are circles for each state, and arrows for each transition.


automata states

It is possible for an automaton to reach its ultimate state after it has been through a finite number of states.

Is there a good reason to learn about automata?

By having lower and repetitive activities easier and more efficient, as well as enhancing output and quality, turnaround time, and cutting costs via the use of automation, companies have gained efficiency. Almost every area of corporate production and assembly, from generating power to steel manufacturing, vehicle assembly lines, and the agricultural and food industries sectors, use automation to some degree or another.

In all of these fields, automation is employed because technology lowers the need for human intervention and establishes a standardized process. Human error in the production line is minimized thanks to automation. Clerical duties such as data structure and document preparation, synthesis and language processing search, subjective verification, framework emails, and contract administration are all examples of cognitive automation.


Working of Automata

From simple feedback control mechanisms seen in thermostats and other domestic appliances to large industrial applications, automata may serve as effective on/off control systems. Technology developed with the use of computers forms the foundation of the organizational tools for developing mathematically sophisticated logical systems.

Software such as CAD and CAM found in CAx systems helps manufacturers streamline their operations. Control systems are developed by integrating IT with industrial robots and processes, with PICs (Programmable Logic Controllers) working in tandem with PCs and taking data from external sensors. With the help of specialized microprocessors and software, modern computers are able to interpret and process data from a wide variety of instruments, controllers, and sensors to carry out simple tasks or elaborate control systems depending on a variety of inputs.

Such automation may generate images in real-time, evaluate reports with data, and do complicated mathematical and logical calculations to carry out a wide range of activities for a wide range of industrial and home applications. AI-based applications and control systems are examples of software that do difficult tasks using data gathered from interconnected computers and sensors.

Also Read: What is Problem Solving Process in Programming?

Scope of Theory of Automata

Automata are most often used for mundane, time-consuming operations. Mining, fire protection systems, and dangerous industrial production processes like those found in automotive assembly facilities are just a few examples of the types of places where automation has replaced human labor. Production times, capacity, and speed have all been improved because of industrial automation.

Assembly of circuit boards, precise tooling, and robotic welding are just a few examples of the kinds of precision work that may be accomplished by robots programmed with automation software. Automated decision-making and problem-solving using complicated computer algorithms are also being used in the aerospace and space industries, in the form of autonomous vehicles and satellites. They are pre-programmed with the capacity to make rational choices.

Automation has the ability to fundamentally transform the character of combat via the use of robots, driverless driving, independent drones, and distant location sensing technologies that are designed to keep soldiers out of harm’s way. Smart assistant robots at shops, as well as apps that facilitate the processing of online transactions and spread the idea of self-checkout, are all examples of automated retail operations.

Motorway and other major route traffic management is now digitalized owing to automatic surveillance technologies like the VSAM program. In addition to reducing traffic congestion, the deployment of self-driving automobiles and trucks may also improve road safety. Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and AI-powered BPAs have the ability to streamline corporate operations.

Creating a smart house with fully autonomous appliances and security systems that connect to a smart energy grid is the goal of home automation. Automatic manufacturing procedures and the application of logical models to the calculation of clinical trial results are both facilitated by software designed for use in a laboratory setting. Automated control methods are also used in robotic surgery and telemedicine.

Basic Terminologies of Automata

There is the fundamental terminology that is crucial and regularly used in automata:


Symbols are entities or single things that may be any letter, alphabet, or image.


1,2,3…    a,b,c….         #


Alphabets are derived from Symbols. Alphabets are a finite set of Symbols. And it is denoted by .


  1. ∑ = {a, b}
  2. ∑ = {A, B, C, D}
  3. ∑ = {012}
  4. ∑ = {01, ….., 5]
  5. ∑ = {#, β, Δ}

Where, ∑ = {a, b} is Alphabets and a,b is Symbols.


The string is a finite sequence of Symbols that are taken from Alphabets.


∑ = {012}

S = 102120

It is a valid String that is derived from Alphabets {012}. 

Kleene Star

The Kleene Star ∑* is an infinite set of all possible strings including null (λ).


If ∑ = {01}

Possible String  ∑* = {λ, 0, 1, 01, 10, 00, 11, 101, 010, 1100, 0011…..}

Kleene Closure(Plus)

The Kleene Closure(Plus) +  is an infinite set of all possible strings excluding null (λ). 


If ∑ = {01}

Possible String+ = {0, 1, 01, 10, 00, 11, 101, 010, 1100, 0011…..}


It is a collection of finite strings over some alphabet. It may be finite or infinite.


      1.Alphabets are ∑ = {01} make a language that starts from 1.

∑ ={1, 10, 101, 100, 111, 1010, 10100, 1100, 1111…..}

Infinite Languge

2. Alphabets are ∑ = {01} make a language of length 2.

∑ = {11, 00, 10, 01}

Finite Language

Daily Life Uses of Automata

The theory of Automata is used in all deterministic devices. It is mostly used in automatic working machines. Some of its uses are given below:

Traffic Lights:

The optimization of municipal traffic light controllers is a graphical depiction of the methodical treatment of traffic laws’ directives. The procedure is dependent on a fixed set of instructions that are executed in a for-loop with context switches between them to regulate traffic.

automata uses in traffic lights as input and output signals

Traffic light state machine diagram

Video Games:

Levels in video games are like the different states of an automaton. During which the gamers have to follow a set of steps in order to complete the task.

DFA for video game

Text Matching:

Automata is used in text matching that is widely used in MS WORD. It helps to check the grammar and autocorrect the grammatical mistakes.

DFA for Text Machine


The theory of Automata has the ability to improve job efficiency and minimize expenses. It has the ability to make work simpler and safer while also keeping humans safe. Automation has advanced significantly as a result of the advancement of cutting-edge technologies such as AI-based coding and machine learning, both of which have the potential to enhance data-driven decision-making processes. Automation has the capability to take over all the areas of human existence as modern computing technology and programming progress.

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